The Thrift Savings Plan is similar to a 401k employer-sponsored retirement savings fund except it is used by the federal government. One of the benefits of employer-sponsored retirement plans is the ability to take advantage of tax benefits for retirement savings. The catch is once you make the contribution to the retirement account, you have to leave it there until retirement, unless you are willing to pay early withdrawal fees. However, there are some instances when you can gain access to your contributions before retirement age. Like a 401k, the Thrift Savings Plan allows participants to borrow against it under certain circumstances and conditions.
How to Take a Loan From Your Thrift Savings Plan
Here are the 6 things you need to know about borrowing from your Thrift Savings Plan account:
- You must have at least $1000 of your own contributions and earnings in the account to borrow money. You can not borrow from agency contributions or earnings. The maximum amount of money you can borrow is $50,000.
- You must be currently employed as a federal civilian employee or a member of the uniformed services to borrow money from you Thrift Savings Plan. Retired and separated individuals are not eligible for a loan.
- You must be in pay status. The loan repayments are deducted directly from your paycheck.
- You must not have repaid a previous loan of the same type in full within a 60 day period.
- You have not had a tax distribution on a loan within the past 12 months, unless it resulted from your separation with Federal service.
- You may still borrow from your Thrift Savings Plan account even if you have stopped making contributions with your own money.
Comparing Thrift Savings Plan Loans and Hardship Withdrawals: TSP loans require you repay the money you borrow; a TSP Hardship Withdrawal does not require you to repay the withdrawal. However, you will have to pay any associated taxes, penalties, and fees for early withdrawals.
Considerations Before Borrowing from Your TSP
There are two types of Thrift Savings Plan loans available from a TSP account. You can get a general purpose loan or you can use the loan to purchase a primary home. The money must be paid back, usually through direct deductions from payroll checks. There is no penalty for prepaying the loan and if a person is planning to retire or leave federal service, the loan must be repaid before then. Loans not repaid will result in the TSP declaring a taxable distribution for the balance of the due principle and interest.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Borrowing from Your TSP
When you borrow from your TSP, there are some advantages including paying yourself a decent amount of interest instead of giving the money to a third-party lender. Additionally, in the event of job loss or other problem resulting in the non-repayment of the loan, your credit will not be affected.
Disadvantages of the TSP loan include the fact you are paying taxes twice. You move tax-deferred assets into a state of taxation. After tax income is used to pay the loan. At the time of withdrawal during retirement, income tax must be paid again on the same funds.
When you take a loan against the TSP you also lose the growth ability of the account. Removing assets from your account will affect how much you will ultimately save. For those making repayments, they may not be able to contribute as much as they once hand.
Another disadvantage of the loan on a TSP is the potential tax penalty when you default on the loan repayment. You will end up paying federal and maybe state income taxes on the amount you did not pay. If you are not age 59 ½ at the time you default on the loan, you will pay early withdrawal penalties of 10% imposed by the IRS.
Conclusion: Thrift Savings Plan loans and 401k loans are available if you need access to your money, but there are risks involved. It is best to seek other alternatives before withdrawing funds from your retirement account.